Idukki district is a district of Kerala state with its administrative headquarters located at Painavu town. The name of the district is probably taken from the Malayalam word Idukku meaning narrow gorge. The significant river in Kerala named Periyar is flowing through the gorge of Idukki, which is created in between the two huge rocks called "Kuravan" and "Kurathi". The ancient history of Idukki district is not so clear since there is no proper evidence whether men of the paleolithic age lived here or not. But there is evidence of stone-age civilisation as stone-age dolmens were found in the valleys of Anchanad in the Devikulam taluk. Archaeological excavation conducted during 1947-48 at Kallar Pattom colony in Udumbanchola taluk and at Vandiperiyar in Peermedu taluk brought to light the remains of Old Stone-age Menhir and Tombs. As per notification, Idukki district was formed on 26th January, 1972 and at that time the district headquarters were located at Kottayam but later it was shifted to Painavu town in June, 1976 where it is proposed to build a new planned forest township. The district consists of Devikulam, Udumbanchola and Peermedu taluks of the former Kottayam district and Thodupuzha taluk of the former Ernakulam district.
Kalayathumkuzhi Mathews Beenamol, an eminent international athlete from India was born on 15th August, 1975 at Kombidinjal village in the district. The Government of India honoured her with the prestigious Padma Shri Award in the year 2004.
Geographically, the district lies at 9°92'N latitude, 77°10'E longitude and 1200 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 72.44% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,356 sq km. and it is bounded by Thrissur district on the North, Pathanamthitta district on the South, Kottayam district on the Southwest, Coimbatore district, Dindigul district and Theni district of Tamil Nadu on the East and Ernakulam district on the Northwest. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of the rainfall in the district occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 4167.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district comprises 4 sub-districts, 1 town and 64 villages. The administrative language in the district is Malayalam.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 11,08,974 out of which 5,52,808 are males and 5,56,166 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1006 (females for every 1000 males). In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was -1.79% including -2.45% were males and -1.13% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 48.86% of the total population. The population density in the district is 255 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Malayalam and Tamil with 81.97% and 17.48%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 11,362 out of which 5,742 were males and 5,619 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,795 out of which 3,809 were males and 2,986 were females.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the district and more than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The principal agricultural crops in the district are Tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, cardamom, pepper, floriculture products, mushroom, vanilla, etc. The district has the agro-climatic conditions which is favourable for the cultivation of plantation crops. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products helps in its economy to a great extent. Dairy is the chief source of extra income of the farmers in the district. The district is scantily industrialised since only a few small scale industries of garments, ayurveda products, rubber, dairy products, electric and electronic goods are found in it. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 23,84,987 lakhs at current price and Rs. 14,00,329 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 19,87,225 lakh at current price and Rs. 11,91,001 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 1,82,302 at current price and Rs. 1,09,259 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Thodupuzha University College of Engineering, Government Engineering College, Mar Baselios Christian College of Engineering and Technology, Marian College, Newman College, St. Joseph College, Mar Baselios College, Pavanathma College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 91.99% including 94.56% are males and 89.45% are females. The total literate population in the district is 9,23,010 out of which 4,71,881 are males and 4,51,129 are females.
P. T. Thomas, a veteran Indian politician and a member of the 15th Lok Sabha from the Idukki Lok Sabha constituency in Kerala was born in the year 1950 in the Idukki district. He is a member of the Indian National Congress party.
During the year June, 2021, there were 3,24,458 domestic tourists and 129 foreign tourists. The district has several centres of attraction which allures numerous travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Munnar, a town with some largest tea plantations in the world is situated at the convergence of the three mountain streams namely Muthirappuzha, Nallathanni and Kundala. The place has also a beautiful summer resort of the British Government in its southern part. Marayur, an interior village located on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats is the only place in Kerala having natural growths of sandal wood trees. Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, located on the northern bank of the Periyar River is a bird sanctuary with a huge variety of bird species. The sanctuary covers a geographical area of about 25 sq km. Eravikulam wild life sanctuary, situated in the district is declared as a National Park. In the southern part of the sanctuary there is the famous Anamudi peak.